Sensors
10A/10mA CT Current Transformer Current Sensor
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Detail given in the picture

Flexiforce 45.5Kg Pressure Sensor - 100lbs.
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Description: This is a piezoresistive force sensor from Tekscan. The harder you press, the lower the sensor’s resistance. Pressing hard, the resistance changes from infinite to ~300k. The sensor itself is thin and flexible, but the resistance does not change while being flexed. Resistance changes only when pressure is applied to the round area at the end ...more detail given below

Description: This is a piezoresistive force sensor from Tekscan. The harder you press, the lower the sensor’s resistance. Pressing hard, the resistance changes from infinite to ~300k. The sensor itself is thin and flexible, but the resistance does not change while being flexed. Resistance changes only when pressure is applied to the round area at the end of the sensor. Used as a presence sensor (someone standing), weight sensor, pressure sensor (impact testing), etc.

The overall length is about 8.5". Sensor comes with 0.1" spaced, reinforced, breadboard friendly connector.

This sensor comes in three flavors. This sensor ranges from 0 to 100lbs of pressure in the mega-ohm range.

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RPM Meter / Digital Laser Photo Tachometer
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Highly accurate, digital laser photo tachometer: measure rotational speed with a visible red light beam from a powerful LED. It's a great tool to measure the RPM of motors and machine parts, the speed of a lathe or milling machine for metal or wood working, or for HVAC applications to measure fan speed. To take the measurement, apply a reflective mark (included in package) onto the target object, aim the laser beam at the mark, the RPM displays on the LCD screen. Size : 180 x 72 x 37 mm (7.0 x 2.8 x 1.5").

50A 75mV FL-2 DC Current Shunt Resistor For Amp Ampere Panel Meter
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High quality and good performance.
Used for a DC 50A current Amp meter.
Easy to install.
Accuracy: Class 0.
Voltage Drop: 75MV.

Specifications :
Color: Black
Material: Steel, cupro-managanese, plastic
Dimension (L x W x H): Approx. 4 1/2 x 1 x 3/4 inch (12 x 2.5 x 1.8cm)

Flex Sensor 2.2
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Description: A simple flex sensor 2.2" in length. As the sensor is flexed, the resistance across the sensor increases. 

The resistance of the flex sensor changes when the metal pads are on the outside of the bend (text on inside of bend).

Connector is 0.1" spaced and bread board friendly. Check datasheet for full specifications.

Datasheetlink::           https://cdn.sparkfun.com/datasheets/Sensors/ForceFlex/FLEX%20SENSOR%20DATA%20SHEET%202014.pdf

Note: 

 

Please refrain from flexing or straining this sensor at the base. The usable range of the sensor can be flexed without a problem, but care should be taken to minimize flexing outside of the usable range. For best results, securely mount the base and bottom portion and only allow the actual flex sensor to flex.

100A 75mV FL-2 DC Current Shunt Resistor For Amp Ampere Panel Meter
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Description:

This is 100A 75mV FL-2 DC current shunt resistor for amp ampere panel meter
The fixed setpoint shunt is a suitable the attached external shunt for measuring DC current in 10kA less directly acting on the analog display instrument together with the use in order to expand the scope of the DC current measurement, or sequentially circuit can be regarded as the current sampling with the standard resistors, a sampling voltage is measured with a current can be regarded as an analog signal.

Specifications:

Accuracy level :2-4000A, 0.5 level; 5000-10000A, 1 level.
Environmental conditions: -40 ~ +60 ℃, the relative temperature ≤ 95% (35 ° C)
Overload performance: 120% of rated current, 2 hours
Voltage drop: 75mV
Load heat: Temperature rise changes stabilized, rated current of 50A does not exceed 80 ° C; rated current of 50A does not exceed 120 ° C
Weight: 128g

Thermistor Temperature Sensor NTC MF52-103 3435 10K ohm 1%
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Thermistor Temperature Sensor NTC MF52-103 3435 10K ohm 1%

Human Presence Detection D6T-44L-06 OMRON MEMS Thermal Sensors
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Introduction

In this project we have implemented Omron's D6T-44L MEMS Thermal sensor using STM32L-Discovery board. These are high sensitivity sensors that enable detection of stationary human presence.These are high-precision area temperature detection with low cross-talk field of view characteristics along with superior noise performance and digital output. In this project the sensor was installed at a location and continuously provided the temperature readings. These readings were used and based on a threshold level we could assert whether a person was present or not.

Hardware Platform

Processor Requirements

  • STM32L-Discovery Board
  • Omron D6t-44L (MEMS Thermal Sensor)

 
STM32L-Discovery Board

STM32L-Discovery Board

Main features of the board useful for the project are as follows.The datasheet can be accessed here[1]

  • Microcontroller in an LQFP64 package
  • 256 KB Flash memory
  • 32 KB RAM
  • 8 KB EEPROM
  • Provides external power supply 3v and 5V(useful for sensor supply).
  • A usb debugger
  • GPIO ports
  • I2C,SPI protocol support

Omron D6t-44L

This is a high sensitivity sensor that detects the surface temperature of a radiating body. This is different from traditional pyroelectric sensors which detect only change of signal (i.e. moving bodies, not the stationary one).The D6T series sensors are made up of a cap with silicon lens, MEMS thermopile sensor chips, and dedicated analog circuit and a logic circuit for converting to a digital temperature value on a single board through one connector.Datasheet can be found here[2].

 
Omron D6T-44L MEMS Thermal Sensor

Operating Principle

This sensor works on the Seebeck Effect[3].The silicon lens collects radiated heat (far-infrared ray) emitted from an object onto the thermopile sensor in the module.The radiated heat (far-infrared ray) produces an electromotive force on the thermopile [4]sensor.The analog circuit calculates the temperature of an object by using the electromotive force value and a measured temperature value inside the module.The measured value is outputted through an I2C bus which can be used for further processing using STM32L-Discovery Board.

D6T-44L-06 has sensor chip arrays of 16 channels (4x4).Each channel corresponds to a pixel (as shown in the figure below) and measures temperature independently. In the Field of view of the sensor that includes all the pixels, whenever an object appears the temperature of corresponding pixel changes.By mounting the signal processing circuit closely to the sensor chip,a low noise temperature measurement is realized.The application note can be seen here.[5][6]

 
Field of View of Sensor
 
Sensitivity Characteristics of Sensor

Application in Human Detection

Please note that the sensitivity area is wider than the FOV specified area. When an object to be measured is smaller than the sensitivity area, the background temperature effects the measurements. Though Omron’s D6T sensor corrects a temperature measurement value by using a reference heat source (blackbody furnace), the measurement’s value is influenced by the emissivity of the specific material of the object to be measured, and the surface shape of the occupant relative to the sensitivity area.

 
Changing Factor of Measurement by distance

Note that the occupied area in FOV becomes smaller with increasing distance and the background temperature prevails. So for detecting human beings, the application will be limited to close range when the detection programming scheme only judges by temperature value. To extend the detection distance, improvements to the judgment accuracy can be made via software programming, considering time change, heat source location and human being movement.

Future Add ons and challenges

This project can be combined with the "Intelligent Load Balancing under constrained energy availability"[7] so as to add on to home automation. This sensor can be used with the spark core wifi enabled board to include the above mentioned two projects in one board. As we are controlling this over the internet, cyber security should also be provided.

References

3 way Line Following Tracking Sensor Module Hunt Sensors module
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Description:
This infrared sensor trio detector and trio output
Build-in TCRT5000 sensor
Work Power : 5VDC
Detector distance:10MM
Applicable to a variety of platforms including Arduino/AVR/ARM/PIC

Package Included:
1 X 3-way Tracking Sensor

SparkFun Ultraviolet UV Sensor Breakout - ML8511
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Description: The ML8511 breakout is an easy to use ultraviolet light sensor. The MP8511 UV (ultraviolet) Sensor works by outputing an analog signal in relation to the amount of UV light that’s detected. This breakout can be very handy in creating devices that warn the user of sunburn or detect the UV index as it relates to weather conditions...more detail given below

Description: The ML8511 breakout is an easy to use ultraviolet light sensor. The MP8511 UV (ultraviolet) Sensor works by outputing an analog signal in relation to the amount of UV light that’s detected. This breakout can be very handy in creating devices that warn the user of sunburn or detect the UV index as it relates to weather conditions.

This sensor detects 280-390nm light most effectively. This is categorized as part of the UVB (burning rays) spectrum and most of the UVA (tanning rays) spectrum. It outputs a analog voltage that is linearly related to the measured UV intensity (mW/cm2). If your microcontroller can do an analog to digital signal conversion then you can detect the level of UV!

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Source: Sparkfun

PCF8591 AD and DA Converter Module Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Conversion Module
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Description:

1. A module chip using PCF8591
2. module supports external voltage input capture (input voltage range 0-5v)
3. Three modules integrated photoresistor acquisition environment through the AD intensity accurate numerical
4. modules integrated thermistor, can capture the precise value of the ambient temperature through the AD
5. The five-module integrated 1 channel 0-5V voltage input acquisition (blue potentiometer to adjust the input voltage)
6. modules with power indicator light (on the module after power indicator lights)
7. modules with the DA output indicator light board DA output indicator module DA output interface voltage reaches a certain value, the voltage the greater the light brightness is more obvious;
8. module PCB size: 3.6cm * 2.3cm
9. standard double-sided, plate thickness 1.6mm, the layout is nice, surrounded by the through-hole, aperture: 3mm, convenient fixed


Performance indicators:
Single-Supply Operation
PCF8591 operating voltage range of 2.5V to 6V
Low standby current
Through the I2C bus serial input / output
PCF8591 by 3 hardware address pins addressing
Sampling rate PCF8591 I2C bus rate decided
4 analog inputs programmable as single-ended or differential inputs
Automatic incremental channel selection
PCF8591 analog voltage range from VSS to VDD
PCF8591 built-in track and hold circuit
8-bit successive approximation A / D converter
Through an analog output DAC gain

Module interface:

The module's left and right, respectively, the external expansion of 2-way pin interface, respectively, as follows:
Output interface of the left the AOUT chip DA
The AINO chip analog input interface.
AIN1 chip analog input interface
AIN2 chip analog input interface
AIN3 chip analog input interface
The right side of the SCL IIC clock interface to access the microcontroller IO port
The SDA IIC digital interface connected microcontroller IO port
GND module to an external
VCC power supply interface external 3.3v-5v
Module red jumper instructions for use
Module three red short circuit cap, respectively, the role are as follows:
P4 connected to the P4 jumper, select thermistor access circuit
P5 connected to P5 jumper to select the photoresistor access circuit
P6 connected to the P6 jumper, to select 0-5V adjustable voltage access circuit

 

Package Included:
1 X PCF8591 Module
4 X Dupond Cable